Optical Clearing of Biological Tissues and Blood

Fundamentals and advances of tissue optical properties controlling as a novel modality for the improvement of laser biomedical spectroscopy and imaging will be presented. As a major technology the optical immersion method at usage of exogenous optical clearing agents (OCAs) will be discussed. Optical clearing properties of fibrous and cell-structured tissues will be analyzed in the framework of receiving of more valuable information from spectroscopic and polarization measurements, Raman spectroscopy, confocal microscopy and OCT, as well as from nonlinear spectroscopy, such as two-photon fluorescence and SHG. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo spectroscopic studies of a variety of human and animal tissues, such as eye sclera, skin, cerebral membrane (dura mater), gastric tissue, tendon, bone, blood vessels and blood, will be presented. OCA and drug delivery, as well as tissue permeation will be discussed. Improvements of image quality of tissues, cells, and cells interacting with nanoparticles at optical clearing will be demonstrated. Some important applications of tissue immersion technique, such as glucose sensing and impact, as well as monitoring of drug delivery, will be shown.